What is hacking?
Hacking is unauthorized use of computer and network resources. (The term “hacker” originally meant a very gifted programmer. In recent years though, with easier access to multiple systems, it now has negative implications.)
Computer Hackers have been around for so many years. Since the Internet became widely used in the World, We have started to hear more and more about hacking.Only a few Hackers, such as Kevin Mitnick, are well known.
In a world of Black and White, it’s easy to describe the typical Hacker. A general outline of a typical Hacker is an Antisocial, Pimple-faced Teenage boy. But the Digital world has many types of Hackers.
Hackers are human like the rest of us and are, therefore, unique individuals, so an exact profile is hard to outline. The best broad description of Hackers is that all Hackers aren’t equal. Each Hacker has Motives, Methods and Skills. But some general characteristics can help you understand them. Not all Hackers are Antisocial, Pimple-faced Teenagers. Regardless, Hackers are curious about Knowing new things, Brave to take steps and they are often very Sharp Minded
Hacker is a word that has two meanings:
1. Traditionally, a Hacker is someone who likes to play with Software or Electronic Systems. Hackers enjoy Exploring and Learning how Computer systems operate. They love discovering new ways to work electronically.
2. Recently, Hacker has taken on a new meaning — someone who maliciously breaks into systems for personal gain. Technically, these criminals are Crackers as Criminal Hackers. Crackers break into systems with malicious intentions.
Hacker Vs. Cracker:
What Is the Difference Between a Hacker and a Cracker?
Many articles have been written about the difference between Hackers and crackers, which attempt to correct public misconceptions about hacking. For many years, media has applied the word Hacker when it really means Cracker. So the public now believe that a Hacker is someone who breaks into computer systems and steal confidential data. This is very untrue and is an insult to some of our most talented Hackers.
A Hacker is a person who is interested in the working of any computer operating system. Most often, Hackers are programmers. Hackers obtain advanced knowledge of operating systems and programming languages.
They may know various security holes within systems and the reasons for such holes. Hackers constantly seek further knowledge, share what they have discovered, and they never have intentions about damaging or stealing data.
A Cracker is a person who breaks into other people systems, with malicious intentions. Crackers gain unauthorized access, destroy important data, stop services provided by the server, or basically cause problems for their targets. Crackers can easily be identified because their actions are malicious.
Whatever the case, most people give Hacker a negative outline. Many malicious Hackers are electronic thieves. Just like anyone can become a thief, or a robber, anyone can become a Hacker, regardless of age, gender, or religion. Technical skills of Hackers varies from one to another. Some Hackers barely know how to surf the Internet, whereas others write software that other Hackers depend upon.
Types of Hacker:
Let’s see the categories of Hackers on the basis on their knowledge
The Real Hackers are the Coders, the ones who revise the methods and create tools that are available in the market. Coders can find security holes and weaknesses in software to create their own exploits. These Hackers can use those exploits to develop fully patched and secure systems.
Coders are the programmers who have the ability to find the unique vulnerability in existing software and to create working exploit codes.
These are the individuals with a deep understanding of the OSI Layer Model and TCP/IP Stacks.
Admins are the computer guys who use the tools and exploits prepared by the coders. They do not develop their own techniques, however they uses the tricks which are already prepared by the coders. They are generally System Administration, or Computer Network Controller. Most of the Hackers and security person in this digital world come under this category.
Admins have experience with several operating systems, and know how to exploit several existing vulnerabilities. A majority of Security Consultants fall in this group and work as a part of Security Team.
Next and the most dangerous class of Hackers is Script kiddies, They are the new generation of users of computer who take advantage of the Hacker tools and documentation available for free on the Internet but don’t have any knowledge of what’s going on behind the scenes. They know just enough to cause you headaches but typically are very sloppy in their actions, leaving all sorts of digital fingerprints behind. Even though these guys are the teenage
Hackers that you hear about in the news media, they need minimum skills to carry out their attacks.
Script Kiddies are the bunnies who use script and programs developed by others to attack computer systems and Networks. They get the least respect but are most annoying and dangerous and can cause big problems without actually knowing what they are doing.
Ethical Hacking is testing the resources for a good cause and for the betterment of technology. Technically Ethical Hacking means penetration testing which is focused on Securing and Protecting IT Systems.
Types of Hackers:
White Hat Hacker:
A White Hat Hacker is computer guy who perform Ethical Hacking. These are usually security professionals with knowledge of hacking and the Hacker toolset and who use this knowledge to locate security weaknesses and implement countermeasures in the resources.
They are also known as an Ethical Hacker or a Penetration Tester. They focus on Securing and Protecting IT Systems.
Black Hat Hackers:
A Black Hat Hacker is computer guy who performs Unethical Hacking. These are the Criminal Hackers or Crackers who use their skills and knowledge for illegal or malicious purposes. They break into or otherwise violate the system integrity of remote machines, with malicious intent.
These are also known as an Unethical Hacker or a Security Cracker. They focus on Security Cracking and Data stealing.
Grey Hat Hackers:
A Grey Hat Hacker is a Computer guy who sometimes acts legally, sometimes in good will, and sometimes not. They usually do not hack for personal gain or have amalicious intentions, but may or may not occasionally commit crimes during the course of their technological exploits.
They are hybrid between White Hat and Black Hat Hackers.
Another type of Hackers are Hacktivists, who try to broadcast political or social messages through their work. A Hacktivist wants to raise public awareness of an issue. Examples of hacktivism are the Web sites that were defaced with the Jihad messages in the name of Terrorism.
There are Hackers who are called Cyber Terrorists, who attack government computers or public utility infrastructures, such as power stations and air-traffic-control towers. They crash critical systems or steal classified government information. While in a conflict with enemy countries some government start Cyber war via Internet.